Oral language disorders

Written language disorders


Dyslexia can be defined as serious and lasting troubles in acquiring written language in normally intelligent children presenting no sensorial troubles or serious affective disorders.
Multiple cognitive troubles could cause dyslexia. A ‘simple’ delay in learning can be wrongly confused with dyslexia.

  • Alarm signs100%
  • Slowness in all written related activities (reading or writing) making it impossible to complete an exam or exercise
  • Unintelligible writing in its form (graphic, spelling and word segmentation) and content, organisational difficulties, need for landmarks
  • Difficulties in establishing a chronology, fatigability, noise sensitivity
  • Reading difficulties, phonic mistakes, paralexia, visual mistakes (b/d...), very weak spelling
  • Better results in speech activities. Better understanding of orally given instructions
  • Normal learning capacities with any medium but written language.


Dysorthographia consists in a severe and lasting failure in acquiring spelling rules (spontaneous or dictated writing alteration).
This disorders causes troubles at converting sounds into written language, segmenting sentences and their components, using spelling and grammar rules.

  • Alarm signs100%
  • Phonological system :
    – Omissions, substitutions, addition of letters
    – Inversions of syllables and assimilations
    – Phonetic writing or deficient phonological code
    – Visual confusions
  • Semantic control :
    – Difficulties with homophones
    – Words isolation and segmentation
  • Morphology and syntax competences :
    – Confused use of gender and number
    – Homogeneity of the nominal group
    – Confusion between nouns and verbs
    – Confusion between ‘é’ endings

Potential additional disorders

  • Delay in speech and language
  • Eye troubles (eye swiping, converging strabismus...)
  • Phonemic discrimination troubles (ta/da)
  • Spatiotemporal troubles (sequential order, orientation...)
  • Unrest, inattention, indifference...

Oral language disorders

Language disorders consists in a lasting and significant perturbation of the oral language structure in normally intelligent children with no hearing deficiency, wanting to communicate and who do not display other neurological pathologies hindering oral communication. Parents must be aware of certain signs...

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Orthophonie / Psychologie / Orientation scolaire
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